Allergology is a branch of medicine concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of allergic diseases, prevention of allergic diseases and educating patients and their families on how to prevent and treat allergies.
Allergic diseases are caused by an excessive reaction of the immune system to certain substances called allergens, which can be either natural or artificial.
Learn about allergy symptoms and treatment options.
GENERAL ALLERGY SYMPTOMS
WHITE NASAL DISCHARGE
RUNNING OF SECRETION
YOU SUSPECT THAT YOU OR YOUR LOVED ONE HAS AN ALLERGY? SOME OF THEM HAVE SETS OF CHARACTERISTIC SYMPTOMS. SEE WHAT SYMPTOMS MATCH A SPECIFIC ALLERGY GROUP. EVERY ALLERGY IS DIAGNOSED WITH TESTS AND BLOOD ANALYSES.
DIAGNOSING AN ALLERGY INVOLVES A NUMBER OF SPECIALISED TESTS WHICH ASSESS THE STATE OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM AND HELP DETERMINE THE CAUSE OF THE SYMPTOMS EXPERIENCED BY THE PATIENT.
BELOW IS A SET OF TESTS WHICH WILL HELP YOUR DOCTOR DIAGNOSE IF YOU HAVE AN ALLERGY.
WHAT IS IT AND HOW IT IS PERFORMED
The most important of the functional tests of the respiratory system, i.e. tests that allow objective assessment of lung function. A so-called baseline spirometry and post-inhalation spirometry with a bronchodilator (referred to as ‘spirometry with assessment of reversibility of obstruction’) are performed.
During a spirometry, the volume of air exhaled and inhaled into the lungs is assessed. The test involves breathing through a mouthpiece of an apparatus.
PREPARATION FOR A SPIROMETRY
Do not smoke or drink alcohol (for a minimum of 4 hours, or preferably – 24 hours) before a spirometry. Do not wear clothing that restricts the movement of the torso (chest and abdomen). You should not eat heavy meals for 2 hours before the examination. Do not engage in strenuous physical activity immediately before the test (about half an hour before).
If spirometry is performed after inhalation of a bronchodilator, some anti-asthmatic drugs must be omitted before the test. This is only needed if the spirometry is performed after inhalation of a bronchodilator. When scheduling the test, the registrar should inform the patient of the need to not intake bronchodilators before the test.
Spirometry is an accurate and repeatable test (meaning that its results are similar for a given patient when the test is repeated after a short period of time) provided that it is performed correctly. For spirometry, this requires a correspondingly high level of patient commitment to performing the test, as some of the results are highly dependent on the effort of the patient. The effort involved in performing spirometry should not be a concern, as the test is completely safe.
SPIROMETRY IS PERFORMED IN A SITTING POSITION
You must sit up straight and not slouch. Place your lips around the mouthpiece of the device and carefully follow the instructions of the technician. At first, breathe calmly. Then, on cue, take in as much air as possible and exhale as quickly and forcefully as possible – this is one of the “technical difficulties” of the examination.
This can be practised by blowing out as strongly as possible. The biggest difficulty is to continue exhaling for as long as possible despite the feeling that there is no air left in the lungs. Only when given a sign by the technician can you stop exhaling.
Performing a spirometry correctly is not easy, but it is worth the effort. It is not detrimental to your health and ensures a reliable and, more importantly, reproducible test result. The test is usually repeated 3 times, one after another, and the results should be similar each time- it is one of the indicators of a correctly performed spirometry.
INTERPRETING THE SPIROMETRY
The quality of the spirometry is assessed by a doctor. Several parameters are taken into account to assess whether the test was carried out correctly and whether the patient put enough effort into it. The results are presented in both numerical and graphic form.
WHY IS DESENSITISATION SO IMPORTANT?
REDUCE ALLERGY SYMPTOMS WITH DESENSITISATION
WHAT happens after DESENSITISATION?
The allergen vaccine stimulates the body to produce other antibodies – IgA and IgG, which block the release of IgE antibodies.
In recent years, the following have also been used:
The entire desensitisation process can take several years, most commonly 3 to 5.
Desensitisation is associated with the risk of anaphylactic shock and, therefore, must be carried out under the supervision of an experienced allergologist, who will notice the first signs of anaphylaxis and take immediate action.
WE ENCOURAGE YOU TO UTILISE THE FOLLOWING ALLERGY TESTING PACKAGE
PACKAGE 3 – 56 tests in ALAB
A research package that you will complete at the nearest ALAB point. When is it worth doing this package?
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